مرحبا بك يا زائر فى منتديات Friends
بحث حول البيئة والتلوث باللغة الانجليزية
عدد الرسائل: 2673
علم بلدي :
تاريخ التسجيل: 22/04/2008
|موضوع: بحث حول البيئة والتلوث باللغة الانجليزية السبت نوفمبر 21, 2009 12:34 pm|| |
Is the study of interactions between organisms and their surroundings, the environment is one of the natural sciences, the environment term comes from the Greek word, <<oikos> (housing, environment), logos, information, knowledge, environment, housing is a science, I discovered the world by the German biologist Ernst Haykel, despite the fact that Henry David Thoreau used since 1852, and it seems he used for the first time in French in 1874, writing in the overall composition of living organisms, Haykel said these terms. ... The environment, aware of the relations between organisms with the world around them (around), ie, (a comprehensive concept) being aware of the conditions (of life). Rlar the concept of the environment was in use in France by geographers for a school science events geographical (geopolitical realities) , especially from Bellaïche Paul Vidal, who has followed except that the German work, especially after 1871, especially Fraederik Ratsl, the facts (events geographical) coordinates cooperation between the headquarters and botanists such as Gaston and Bunye, however, the new direction taken Marquis in France at that time evolution concept more when Alankuloskson. Accurately define the environment the subject of the study mentioned above, there are two distinct, including the pool of living ((biocénose, physicist and the Pacific (biotope), which constitute the ecosystem (ecological), studying the environmental flows of energy and matter (food webs), which are distributed in an ecosystem (a word discovered Tnsley), indicating a homogeneous environment to local, forest, meadows, a pond, a local dwelling
عدد الرسائل: 2673
علم بلدي :
تاريخ التسجيل: 22/04/2008
|موضوع: رد: بحث حول البيئة والتلوث باللغة الانجليزية السبت نوفمبر 21, 2009 12:34 pm|| |
The environment for the commonly used word associated with the pattern of significance relationship between them and her employer, we say: - AGRO environment, and industrial environment, and a healthy environment, and social environment and cultural environment, and political .... This means that the relationship of human activities on these areas ...
Ecology has translated the word into Arabic with the words "ecology" developed by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel Ernest Haeckel in 1866 following the merger of two words Eonanettin Oikes and meaning of houses, and Logos and meaning of science and defined as "the science that studies the relationship of living where you live in rural and cares about this living science and nutrition, and ways of life and their presence in communities, or residential communities or peoples, and also includes the study of non-living factors such as climate characteristics (temperature, humidity, radiation, gas water and air) and the physical and chemical properties of land, water and air.
Scientists agree at the present time that the concept of the environment includes all the conditions and external factors that living organisms and affect the operations of the. The environment for everyone - "the framework within which to live and which contains a soil, water and air and the promise of each of these three elements of the components of-living, and vibrant beings. And there is this framework of the various manifestations of weather and climate, wind, and rain and gravity and magnetic .. etc. It is mutual relations between these elements.
The talk about the concept of environment, then, is to talk about its components and the natural conditions and factors which they live organisms.
The Department of the environment to some researchers, two main sections: --
The natural environment: - a phenomena that has nothing to do for a person in the presence or use, and manifestations: the desert, the sea, climate, topography, surface water and groundwater, flora and fauna. And the natural environment influence directly or indirectly in the life of any group living Population of plant, animal or human being.
The built environment: - consisting of physical infrastructure built by human and social systems and institutions established, and then can be considered to the built environment through the way in which societies have organized their lives, and that changed the natural environment to serve human needs, including the built environment and land use for agriculture and areas residential and exploration for natural resources, as well as industrial zones, as well as industrial zones, commercial centers, schools, and raise these roads ... etc..
And the environment both natural and the built environment are an integrated framework covers the globe, or to move a planet of life, and affects the other components of the universe and the contents of this framework is not static, but it is constantly moving and affected by the interaction of man himself and one of the components of the environment interacts with components including his fellow human beings This was narrated comprehensive understanding on the lips of Mr. U Thant Secretary-General of the United Nations, where he said "we like it or not travel together on the back of a common planet .. and we have no reasonable alternative but to work together to make the environment from which we and our children that we live a full life safe" . This requires that the rights and is the only rational form of life to deal with the environment, forbearance and compassion, invests without damaging or destroying ... Understanding the nature and components of the environment and the interrelationships among them can be no rights and develop a better site for his life and the lives of generations after him.
Elements of the environment: --
Environment can be divided, according to the recommendations of the Stockholm Conference, the three elements are: --
The natural environment: - consisting of four closely interrelated systems: the atmosphere, hydrosphere, land, ocean air, including covered by these regulations from water, air, soil, minerals, and energy sources in addition to plants and animals, and these are all the resources made available by God to man in order to get the basics of life, including food, clothing, medicine and shelter.
Biological environment: - The rights include the "individual" and his family and his community, as well as organisms in the biosphere and biological environment is part of the natural environment.
The social environment: - It is intended that the social environment framework of relations that defines the relationship of human life with others, the framework of relations which is the basis for organizing any of the groups, both among each other in their environment, or between similar or disparate groups together and civilization in environments far apart, and patterns that make up what is known as relations social systems, and introduced a rights during his long journey cultural environment to help him in his land and Omar broke the way for the conquest of space.
And cultural elements of the environment to humans is determined in the first two major aspects: - the physical aspect: - All the rights to make, could Kalmskn, clothing, transportation, tools and machines used in daily life, secondly the non-material: - covers the rights and beliefs customs and traditions and ideas and culture and all that involved in the same human values and ethics of science and automatic or acquired.
If the environment is the framework in which humans live and get him the basics of life food, clothing and exercises his relations with his fellow human beings, the first thing that must be achieved to preserve the rights of this a life, to understand the environment they are true in all elements and components and mutual interactions, and then that the serious collective action to protect and improve and to seek his living and to exercise its relations without damaging or spoiling.
Environment and ecosystem
Scientists call the word on the total environmental conditions and external factors that living organisms and affect the biological processes that are, and environmental system is intended to any area of nature counties contain the living and living material in their interaction with each other and with environmental conditions and generated by the exchange between the parts living and non-living, and examples of forest ecosystems and the river, lake and sea, is clear from this definition that takes into account all the organisms that make up the environmental community (Alibdaiyat and Tlaiaiat respectively, and plant and animal) as well as all non-living components of the environment (soil composition, wind, the length of daylight, humidity, pollution ... etc.) and takes rights - as one of the objects of the ecosystem - a special place because of the intellectual and psychological development, it is the controlling - to a significant extent - on the ecosystem and to maintain good conduct depends on the ecosystem and not drained.
Environmental characteristics of the system: - It consists of each eco-system of the following: --
Non-living organisms: - the basic material of inorganic and organic in the environment.
Living: - It is divided into two main categories: --
A. Living self-feeding: the organisms that can build their own food from inorganic materials mediated by simple processes of photosynthesis (plants, vegetables), these organisms are the primary source of all kinds of other organisms of various types, and these organisms consume large quantities of CO carbon dioxide through the process of photosynthesis, and you remove the oxygen in the air.
B. Living non-self-nutrition: - the organisms that can not configure their own food and includes objects and consumer objects analyzed, Vaclat weeds such as insects that feed on herbs consumer objects based on what the plant and its transformation into their bodies to different substances to build up their tissues and their bodies, and called such These objects are the first consumer to obfuscate it directly on plants, and animals that feed on these insects objects but also consumers called "consumer II" because they rely on food components of the insect bodies, which in turn arose out of a vegetarian, but the objects are analyzed based on nutrition, but self - disintegration of the remnants of plant and animal transformation into simple compounds benefit the plant and examples of bacteria fungi and some objects Almtermmp.
Rights and its role in the environment
Amer is the most important rights is vital in bringing about environmental change and breach of natural diversity, since and he is dealing with the components of the environment, and the more successive years, increased control and power in the environment, especially after that pleased him scientific and technological progress further opportunities to make a change in the environment, according to the increased need for food and clothing.
And thus cut off rights of forest trees on the land to farms, factories, residences, and over-consumption of intensive grazing pastures, and resorted to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides of various kinds, and these factors are all effective in disrupting the balance of ecosystems, their impact is reflected in the end to human life as evidenced by the following : --
- Forests: forest ecosystem is highly relevant to human beings, including forests, nearly 28% of the continent, therefore, degradation or removal occurs serious repercussions in the ecosystem, especially in the required balance between the ratios of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air.
- Range: misuse leads to the deterioration of rangelands, natural vegetation, which is accompanied by a deterioration in the soil and climate, if denuded soil degradation sequence and become vulnerable to erosion.
- Farming systems and agriculture unbalanced: the transfer of rights of natural forests to agricultural land by replacing natural ecosystems with artificial, and replacing the food chain and on the interrelationships between organisms and material characteristics of the ecosystem other kind of relations between the crop grown and the surrounding environment, use of fertilizers and pesticides insecticide to reach this goal, and the biggest fault of rights in the understanding of the agricultural land investment is the belief that he can replace the complex natural relationships that exist between environmental factors, plants, artificial factors simplified the organization opposed the laws of nature, has made the agricultural systems cumbersome and fragile.
- Flora and Fauna: The deterioration of vegetation and unregulated fishing to the large number of wild plants and animals to extinction, Vokhal environmental balance.
The impact of industrialization and modern technology on the environment
The manufacturing and adverse effects of modern technology in the environment, Vantlaq vapors, gases and waste dumping led to the disruption of food chains, and reflected on the man who ruined the industry environment and in some cases made them unsuitable for life as evidenced by the following: --
- Polluting the water environment: The role of aquatic ecosystems relations directly and indirectly to human life, Femiahaa that evaporate in the form of rain fall are essential to life on land, and savings of the living material of plant and animal food is a savings of all mankind in the future, and the mineral wealth of the utmost importance.
- Air pollution: multiple sources of air pollution, and can say that it includes factories, transport and atomic explosions, radioactive waste, as multiple sources and increasing their numbers day after day, for example, chlorine, the first carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, iron and zinc salts and lead and some organic compounds and radioactive elements. If the proportion of these pollutants in the air a certain extent it has become clear effects on humans and the objects of the environment.
- Soil pollution: contaminated soil from the use of various pesticides and fertilizers and dumping of industrial waste, and it affects the organisms in the soil, and therefore fertility, plants and animals, which reflected the impact on rights in the end.
Rights in the face of environmental challenges
Rights is one of the organisms that live on land, which needs oxygen to breath for its operations vital, as an ongoing resource needs of the energy draw from the organic diet, which can not be accessed only from other living organisms, plants and animals, and also needs to clean drinking water for part an important position to Alazmrar in life.
And the continuity of life depends clearly on the urgent solutions to many of the major environmental problems which highlighted three problems can be summarized as follows: --
A. How to access adequate sources of food to provide energy for the preparation of growing.
B. How to get rid of the volume of waste, increasing and improving the means that must be reached to get rid of wastes, multiple special waste is not biodegradable.
T.. How to reach the appropriate rate of population growth, so there is a balance between population and the environment.
It is well established that human destiny is linked to biological and balances contained in food chains of ecosystems, and that any breach of these Altoisanat and chains is directly reflected on the lives of Rights and the rights that the benefit lies in preserving the integrity of natural ecosystems, which provides him with a better life, and we mention the following means to achieve this : --
Of good forest management: In order to remain on the forest productivity and its advantages.
Good management of rangelands: It is necessary to maintain the natural pastures and prevent its degradation and thus placed a viable system to their uses.
Good management of agricultural land: targeting the prudent management of agricultural land to get the best return on the quantity and quality while maintaining soil fertility and biological balances necessary for the safety of agricultural systems, can achieve the yoke:
A. Multiplicity of crops in the agricultural cycle balanced.
B. Enrichment of agricultural land.
T.. Improve the soil by adding organic matter.
Th. Combat soil erosion.
4. Control of pollution of the environment: Given the importance of pollution of the environment for everyone, it is necessary to promote scientific research, pollution control in various forms.
5. Constructive cooperation between those projects and environmental scientists: that any project we do must take into account the respect for nature, and must therefore examine each investment project to the environment by a team of specialists and researchers in the core disciplines that focus on the natural environment, in order to determine both changes expected occur when the project is, roused together to mitigate the potential negative effects, and must remain the link between the list of specialists and researchers to address any new problems.
6. Development of environmental awareness: humankind needs to ethics related to modern social respect for the environment, and can not get to this until after the ethics awareness vital to show people how it relates to a learning environment and its rights in the environment is always offset by the duties towards the environment, there are no rights without duties.
Finally, the above shows that there is a symbiotic relationship between man and the internal environment is affected and affects them and it seems clear that the interest of the human person or group lies in its presence within a safe environment in order to remain healthy lives
عدد الرسائل: 645
علم بلدي :
تاريخ التسجيل: 04/07/2008
|موضوع: رد: بحث حول البيئة والتلوث باللغة الانجليزية السبت نوفمبر 28, 2009 2:23 am|| |
بحث حول البيئة والتلوث باللغة الانجليزية